Digital Renaissance Editions

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5.3 Format of annotations

5.3. Format of annotations

The format for annotations follows closely the format for collations (see 4.6.9). You will receive a template into which you can insert your annotations. Section 5.3.2 lists the minimal tagging that will be needed in addition to that already included in the template.

5.3.1. The template

The template provides this ready-made format:

  <tln n="n" />
  <level n="1">Level one note</level>
  <level n="2">Level two note</level>

a) Each annotation is surrounded by the tags <note></note>.

b) The TLN can be a single number, a number with a decimal addition, or a range of numbers. The decimal addition is needed for lines where the Folio has no equivalent (in plays where a quarto is the copy text, for example). Where an added stage direction should appear on a separate line, provide it with a decimal TLN, incrementally from the last one, and make sure that this number is also added to your text.

c) A lemma can be a single word, a phrase, or a longer section indicated by ellipsis (three periods separated by spaces). The lemma is not only the word or phrase for which there is commentary, but also the "anchor" which the reader will click on to see the annotation. For this reason, it is important that you design the lemma with four points in mind:

  1. A single-word lemma must be long enough to permit clear visibility of the underline that indicates an annotation, and to permit easy clicking. Thus, for example, a single "I" or "a" should be avoided; add a second word to the lemma, or extend it to a short phrase.

2. Since the computer will find the first example of the lemma in a given TLN range, the lemma must be unambiguous. If a word is repeated in a line, and you are referring to the second instance, you should again include an additional word before or after. In the following example, the lemma <lem>fair</lem> would be inadequate, since it is the second instance of the word that is being annotated; the solution is to gloss the phrase.

The text:

<tln n="208" />Speak, fair, but speak fair words, or else be mute.

The note, in its unambiguous form:

 <tln n="208" />
 <lem>fair words,</lem>
 <level n="1">Kind words.</level>

3. When you indicate a longer passage using ellipsis, the annotation will be linked from the first part of the passage, before the ellipsis. Thus this initial section of the lemma must be of sufficient length and must similarly be unambiguous.

NOTE 1: it is very important that the lemma is exactly the same as it is recorded in your edition, including any capitalization and final punctuation. Otherwise the computer will not be able to match it, and there will be an error. The safest way to ensure accuracy is to copy and paste from your edition, making sure to update any collations should you later revise your modern text. If you wish the lemma to be italicized, use the tags <I> </I>. Otherwise use no tagging in the lemma.

NOTE 2: since the lemma becomes the text the user clicks on to see the annotation, you must avoid overlapping lemmas. This may take some careful wording if you wish both to comment on an individual word, and a longer section it initiates. The best tactic will often to make the word itself the subject of a level one note, and to address the larger issue as a level two note in the same overall annotation.

5.3.2. Additional tagging needed within the annotations

Items to be tagged within the body of a note include longer quotations, which should be tagged <VERSEQUOTE></VERSEQUOTE> or <PROSEQUOTE></PROSEQUOTE> as appropriate. Use these tags only if the quotation is long enough to be set off from the surrounding passage. If you use Word as a word processor, you may use its italics (and superscripts).

Words in a foreign language should be tagged thus: <FOREIGN lang="[language]"> </FOREIGN>

5.3.3. Examples of annotations

Please ensure that your annotation file includes an accurate note of the most recent revision. You will find the appropriate place in the metadata that are in the header of your document. Look for the item

<meta name="DC.Date.Modified" scheme="W3CDTF" content="2011-07-01" />

and change the final date, using the format YYYY-MM-DD. It is a good idea to include the date of most recent revision in the file name so that you can be sure not to work on an older file.

Example: FairEm_M_annotations 2006-08-11.txt

The lemma should not include tagging. When a phrase (or more) is cited, only the first and last words, separated by three dots, need be given. The dots should be separated by a space from each other and from the surrounding words.

In these examples italics are represented by tags, converted from the italics of the original word processor document.

A note indicating the implied location of a scene:

 <tln n="1" />
 <level n="1">Location: Oliver's orchard or garden.</level>

A note with both level 1 and level 2 comments:

 <tln n="97" />
 <lem>sterile curse.</lem>
 <level n="1">Curse of sterility.</level>
 <level n="2">On "location of effect," see Hope, 47-49.
Plutarch reports the fertility hopes associated with the
Lupercalia (522), but Shakespeare invents Caesar's remark
to Antony about Calpurnia's barrenness. The comment indicates
the failure of Caesar's dynastic hope (he did not in fact
leave any legitimate heirs of his own begetting), and it
misogynistically ignores the possibility of his own

(Here the reference to Plutarch can be linked directly to the source passage in the supplementary materials accompanying the edition.)

A level 2 note covering a range of text:

 <tln n="27-30" />
 <lem>Truly . . . them.</lem>
 <level n="2">Bate (462) suggests a bawdy pun on <i>awl</i>
and <i>penis</i>, referring to a similar pun in Dekker's
<i>Shoemaker's Holiday</i>, which was staged earlier in 1599</level>

A note that includes a verse quotation:

 <tln n="133-138" />
 <lem>Were I hard-favored . . . why dost abhor me?</lem>
 <level n="2">Prince compares these lines to the following:
He is deformed, crooked, old, and sere,
Ill-fac'd, worse bodied, shapeless every where;
Vicious, ungentle, foolish, blunt, unkind,
Stigmatical in making, worse in mind.
(<i>Err.</i> 4.2.19-22).</versequote>

Where a note applies to more than one instance, do not include the additional TLNs in the TLN tag, but put it in the body of the note. In this example, the reference to the OED is placed in the level two note:

 <tln n="2771" />
 <level n="1">Wait.</level>
 <level n="2"><i>OED</i> v. 9); see also TLN 2773.</level>

5.3.4. Paraphrase

Idiomatic paraphrases of sentences or phrases offered in the notes, as opposed to literal renderings, should be presented within quotation marks. Paraphrasing privileges an author’s semantics at the expense of style, so editors should endeavour to minimize using paraphrase except where absolutely necessary.

5.3.5. Incomplete sentences

Where a commentary note is not a complete sentence, DRE style dictates that it should begin with a capital letter, and end with a period.

Level two notes should  be complete sentences.

5.3.6. Line references

When cross-referencing stage directions or words in the text, cite them by TLN. Line references (here and throughout) follow MLA style. Use both numbers for figures under 100: 20-26 (not 20-6), 11-17, 18-89. For figures above 100 use the last two numbers only, unless more are necessary: 103-04, 122-37, 189-226. Note that this rule does not apply to line references contained within tags (see above, 5.3.1.b).

5.3.7. Quotations from other works

Quotations in annotations should, except for good reason, follow the spelling and punctuation of the edition cited. Editors are urged to use reliable modernized editions wherever possible. The spelling of book titles, in the notes and in the bibliography, should also follow the spelling of the edition cited.

5.3.8. Closing punctuation

All commentary notes should end with a period.

5.3.9. Spelling

See section 4.4.4.c above in the section on modernization of spelling for a list of preferred modern spellings, whether using US or British English.

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